Unit 41 Assignment 3

Sword blender file:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1pUit8NtiFKtSuw0Rd9ewvyaXWaK3rJeq/view?usp=sharing

Sword .obj file:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1KYs6f-p19rtJQbv7pUmViO65qL_bfhNw/view?usp=sharing

Sword render mp4 file:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1opJTBjua2UXeU19P9pN-TAqryvNzi-37/view?usp=sharing

Unit 41 3D Modelling Assignment 3

Creating my sword

Since my teacher allowed the use of the Blender application to create our models I used blender instead as I found it much easier to use than Houdini and there are lots more resources on it to make models on youtube.

Here is what the latest version of the Blender application 2.92 at the time of writing this looks like:

The goal was to create a sword like this in blender:

So first of all I started of spawning a cube mesh. I did this by pressing the shortcut ‘Shift+A’ which pops up the menu to spawn in meshes, then I hovered over the word ‘Mesh’ and left clicked on ‘Cube’

Next I swapped to ‘Edit Mode’ by opening the dropdown menu in the top left

Now I wanted to make the cube longer so I extruded it on both its left face and right face. First I selected the left face by pressing the number 3 on my keypad which is the shortcut to select faces which selects this option at the top

Then I clicked on the left face

Then I pressed E which is the shortcut for the extrude tool which is located on the left side of the toolbar

Now I pulled on this a bit but then pressed the number 5 on my keypad so it would extrude it to the left by 5 m

I repeated these steps for the right face as well

Now I pressed ‘CTRL+R’ which will select the loop edge cut tool and then added a cut which I would need later when creating the blade.

I moved the shape up a bit so it could be better seen by going to right hand panel and then in Location Z I changed it from 0 to 1

Next I deleted edges that I would no longer need by first pressing the number 2 on my keypad which would switch me to select edge mode and then selecting the edges 2 whilst holding the ‘Shift’ button which allows me to select multiple of them at a time.

Then I pressed the ‘X’ button which brought up this delete menu and I clicked ‘Dissolve Edges’ this would just remove the edges without affecting the shape of the mesh.

Now to create the blade I selected that middle edge and I pressed the ‘G’ key which is the shortcut for the Grab tool and I pressed the ‘Z’ key so it would move it along the Z axis

Now I have created the overall shape of my blade I need to polish it by changing at the sides where there are straight lines to be more diagonal like the blade. I did this by selecting the edges and using the grab tool to grab them out by 0.6 m each side

I selected the edge then pressed ‘G’ for the grab tool, then pressed X so it would only drag it out on the X axis keeping the shape straight still, and then I typed ‘0.6’ and it dragged it out 0.6m to the right

This looked much better now. However, for the left side I had to type –0.6m since it was going in the negative direction (to the left)

Now this looked much better and like a tetrahedron.

Next step I decided to create the handle. So I select this bottom square face and pressed the E key to extrude it out and typed the number 3 so it would extrude it down by 3 m

Now to match my picture I showed at the start of what my model would look like I had to create an inner square and extrude this out a bit as well.

So I did this by selecting the bottom face and then pressing I which is the shortcut for the Inset tool. I typed in 0.35 so I would create this smaller square that I could now extrude to create the handle which would be held onto.

I then selected this new smaller square face and pressed E to extrude it by 5m by pressing the number 5 on my keypad.

Now to make this handle more round since it would hurt for a person to hold onto some square handle I used the bevel tool. The bevel tool is located on the left hand side on the toolbar, its shortcut is ‘CTRL+B’

I pressed CTRL + ALT on one edge so it would select all the other edges and then I bevelled it.

I had the bevel set to 15 segments to make the cuboid really round.

Now I needed to add the little ball put on the bottom which is shown in the picture.

I selected the bottom circle face then pressed to extrude it out.

Then I pressed S which is the shortcut for the Scale tool and I stretched it out a bit in order to start creating a sort of ball shape.

I kept repeating these steps to achieve a result of this

It wasn’t exactly a round ball as I had planned but I felt that it was the best I could do.

Getting close to the end now, I needed to add the cuts to my sword like it was in the picture

I pressed ‘K’ which is the shortcut for the knife tool. Then I pressed ‘Z’ which will cut through the object in simpler words perform the cuts on both sides which is extremely helpful so I don’t have to do it individually for the front and the back which would most likely be inaccurate.

Now I just had to select these faces on both sides and on the side of the shape of too and delete them.

Now to fill in these missing gaps I selected the edges and pressed ‘F’ which is the shortcut to fill in faces.

Now I had my complete sword shape the second to last thing I had to do was to make it sharp, I would do this by making the blade flatter instead of being some tetrahedron block. I did this by selecting all these edges first.

Then I pressed the ‘S’ to select the scale tool and I pressed Y to make it to only scale on the Y axis.

Then I dragged so it would be a flatter sharper blade.

Now the very final part is to add colour like I did with my sword.

I do this by clicking this button on the right panel

And then when presented with this panel I will click ‘New’ to create a new material

I will call this one ‘Red’

Where it says ‘Base colour’ I will edit this and then make the colour red.

So now I have a red colour material

I repeated these steps and did the same for black, so now I have red and black

Now all I had to do was click on the different faces and edges to select them, then once I had selected them I would click the assign button to give them the colour

Here was my complete sword with colour

Finally I went into Object mode

Then selected my shape, then right clicked and pressed ‘Shade smooth’ to give is the smooth shiny look.

I intentionally made the second cut on my sword deeper as I thought it would make the sword look better.

Development Software interface

Since I built my model from scratch I did not need to use any other files, plugins or load anything in of the sort so I just clicked on the New file menu on blender where it said ‘General’

If I wanted to open a file in blender, then in the top right I would click ‘File’ then ‘Open’ and select my blender file:

Then it would open my file:

If I wanted to merge a file then I would click ‘File’ then ‘Append’ and I would select my blender file:

Then when I click Append I will browse to the Object folder and select ‘Cube’ (which really should be named ‘Sword’ but I forgot to change the object’s name) and then this object will be appended to my current scene.

My current scene:

My scene after appending:

If I wanted to import something such as my sword in .obj format then I can click ‘File’ then ‘Import’ then ‘Wavefront Obj’ and select my obj file:

Now I have my original cube from a brand new default scene, my sword from a blender file I appended (which is on the left in the picture below) and my sword in obj format I imported (which is on the right in the picture below):

Now for the viewports in blender in the top right you have access to the way you can view the object

Where it shows ‘X’ ‘Y’ and ‘Z’ when you hover your mouse in that area and hold down left click it lets you change the way you view your object e.g. the angle, its frontview, backview, bottom and top view and side views. I prefer however to use the shortcuts as it was so much faster when building your model. For the shortcuts it’s: for X Numpad 3, For Y Ctrl+Numpad 1, For Z Numpad 7 and to be able to move your camera angle you would hold down the middle mouse button on your mouse which lets you rotate the angle you are viewing the object at. To move your camera from side to side you hold down shift and your middle mouse button.

When you are editing your object for example, extruding it you can press either the X, Y or Z button so it will snap to that axis and only extrude it on that specific axis or you can press for example, X and Z so it will only extrude it on these two axis.

In the top right of blender you have your objects panel which you can fiddle around with such as changing their name or hiding/showing them etc.

There is a button option which you can use to change what it shows in the top right instead of the scene collection

Now it shows my 3D viewport instead

Or you can click the ‘Preferences’ button to customize your options such as input, lighting, add-ons etc

Geometric models and text

For my model I simply just spawned in a cube and then used various techniques such as extruding, bevelling, knife tool to cut my shape, and grabbing and dragging out vertices. In blender to spawn in a basic mesh you can press the shortcut Shift+A which will bring up this menu

Now as you can see, there are many other things you can spawn in such as 3D text, anyways what we will focus on is where it says ‘Mesh’ now when you hover over mesh you will get even more options of the different meshes you can spawn in

As can be seen from the picture you can spawn in the common meshes like a Plane, Cube, Circle, Sphere, Cylinder, Cone, Torus. I was using a cube so I just clicked on cube and it spawned it into my scene

You can see the drawing units in blender and modify the option by clicking the ‘Scene’ button then expanding the ‘Units’ tab:

Now you have all the options for your drawing units which you can change to fit different needs or preferences, for example I change the unit system for metric to imperial:

Mesh building and editing

To add vertices to your shape there a few different ways of doing this but the main way I will show you is by using the knife tool. The knife tool lets you cut a shape by creating vertices in the shapes which get connected by an edge and then after that you can choose to delete what you have cut out or just keep them as vertices. The knife tool is located on the left side in the toolbar

You can press the shortcut K on your keyboard to select this tool. Now using your cursor you can move around and then when you want to place a vertex at your cursor’s location you left click

Then you can left click again to place another vertex and once you are done you press Enter on your keyboard.

Now we have created two vertices on the face of our cube

Another way we can do this is by using the loop cut tool

By pressing Ctrl R we can use the loop cut tool to create a cut around the mesh which in our case for our cube will be four vertices. With this tool it will show us a yellow line which is our loop cut, we can move our mouse to slide it up and down or scroll with our mousewheel to increase the number of cuts.

Then once we’re done we can left click twice to confirm and then we will have our cuts.

The last way I will talk about is subdivisions, if we press 3 to go into face select mode, select a face then rightclick we will have this menu and where it says ‘subdivisions’ we can click and will subdivide our shape up

This is a third way in which we can create vertices on our shape.

When we select a vertex we can press ‘G’ which will allow us to drag out vertex around on the shape,

To delete a selected vertex when can press X on our keyboard which will bring up this menu.

Then we can delete the vertice which will give us a hole in our shape or we can dissolve it so we don’t get that hole.

Modelling

In blender you can select vertices and then to make modifications to the shape you can move them to rotate, stretch and deform the shape. As you can see below on my cube I can move the vertex to deform the cube mesh.

There are other techniques and tools you can use for example, the extrude and bevel tool which I both used when designing my model. At the start when I spawned in the cube mesh for each side I selected the face and then extruded it out, another time I extruded was when I was creating the handle of my sword, I selected the bottom face extruded it out a bit then I used the inset tool to create a smaller face, then I extruded that smaller face out again.

I clicked on the left face

Then I pressed E which is the shortcut for the extrude tool which is located on the left side of the toolbar

Now I pulled on this a bit but then pressed the number 5 on my keypad so it would extrude it to the left by 5 m

I repeated these steps for the right face as well

For creating the round smooth sort of cylinder shape that was my handle of the sword I used the bevel tool. I selected the four edges then bevelled them to reach my desired smoothness which I also had to increase the amount of segments I was bevelling too to make it super round smooth as when I used the default value it was still quite blocky and rectangular.

Now to make this handle more round since it would hurt for a person to hold onto some square handle I used the bevel tool. The bevel tool is located on the left hand side on the toolbar, its shortcut is ‘CTRL+B’

I pressed CTRL + ALT on one edge so it would select all the other edges and then I bevelled it.

I had the bevel set to 15 segments to make the cuboid really round.

In 3D modelling you can use boolean the tool to perform boolean operations for example the operation called ‘difference’ will cut out of a shape a difference between two meshes. As you can see below I have two cubes by selecting first the smaller cube which will be the influencer and then the bigger cube which will be the influenced I will cut out the shape of the smaller cube from the bigger cube.

As seen above from the image there is a hole in my bigger cube which was the difference between the smaller cube inside of the bigger cube

There are many ways to duplicate objects in blender. One way is mirror duplication when you want to mirror a certain shape you have created so that is the exact same but mirror version. So for example if I had the shape below and I wanted the mirrored version of it I could use the mirror duplicate tool.

Next I will select this shape and press Shift+D to duplicate it then press Y so I only move it across the Y-axis.

So now I have a duplicate of my original shape, but to mirror it I will click select my new duplicate, right click and then hover where it says ‘Mirror’ and then click ‘Y – Global’.

Now I have mirrored my new duplicate.

Another way I can duplicate is by using an array modifier. By going to the modifier properties panel clicking ‘Add Modifier’ then selecting ‘Array’ I can add an array modifier.

Now by default where it says ‘Count’ the value is 2 so I have one duplicate of my shape

But I can increase this number to make more

Under the ‘Relative Offset’ tab I can change the options to make the offset which is relative from each duplicate to the previous one to be different, for example I can add spacing between each duplicate by increasing ‘Factor X’

Or I can make the height of each duplicate different by increasing the Z

Notice how each of them have a different height? This is because the offset is relative which means that each duplicate’s offset is relative to the one before it which is why it appears they are ascending in height.

I can add subdivsion surfaces to my shape by selecting a face or multiple and then right clicking and clicking the option ‘Subdivide’

I can add sub division surfaces to my shape by adding the modifier. I click on this icon then click ‘Add Modifier’ and then on the dropdown I select ‘Subdivision surface’.

Originally my cube appeared as this:

Now after adding this ‘Subdivision surface’ modifier it now looks like this:

On the Subdivision surface option panel I can increase the levels viewport to increase the subdivisions

Now at level 6 my cube is a completely round sphere

The term “organic modelling” refers to the process of making 3D representations of living organisms such as people and animals. These include anything from trees and plants to animals and humans. Because organic models are frequently utilised in animation, there are several key guidelines to follow in order to achieve the greatest results. Organic models are usually best as entire quads. This means that all of the model’s polygons are four-sided. As long as the number of sides equals four, the form is typically unimportant.

When “N-gons” (polygons with 5 or more sides) are subdivided or animated, they might behave strangely. As a result, it is best to avoid them in all models, but particularly in organic things. While polygon modelling software may create full organic things, they are frequently taken into sculpting software for finer details. Wrinkles and skin folds are significantly easier to create in ZBrush or Mudbox than they are on a polygonal level. It’s then exported as a texture, which adds all the extra features to your model.

Weight maps are properties of point clusters on geometric objects. They assign a weight value to each point in a cluster. Each cluster can have various weight maps, allowing you to experiment with various settings on various operators. The goal is to come up with smooth bending joints that behave realistically.

You can acquire (and update) information on the weight values of each vertex of a mesh using Blender’s Vertex Weights panel. That is, whatever vertex groups the vertex belongs to and what weight value is given to it.

The Vertex Weights panel is located in the 3D Viewport’s Sidebar section. It’s accessible in two modes: Edit and Weight Paint.

../../../../_images/modeling_meshes_properties_vertex-groups_vertex-weights_editor-weight.png
Picture source: https://docs.blender.org/manual/en/latest/modeling/meshes/properties/vertex_groups/vertex_weights.html#:~:text=Blender%20provides%20a%20Vertex%20Weights,region%20of%20the%203D%20Viewport.

The acronym NURBS stands for non-uniform relational B-spline. It’s a mathematical model that represents curves and surfaces with basis splines (B-splines). It’s best for models that demand a high level of precision.
NURBS curves might be complex for your computer to calculate, which is one disadvantage. This makes it unsuitable for applications that need quick render times, such as video game graphics. This high level of precision, on the other hand, is ideal for 3D modelling of animals, humans, vehicles, and other such stuff.

We can create nurbs curves in blender. We do this by using the shortcut ‘Shift+A’ which will give us a menu to create stuff. Then we hover over ‘Curve’ and click ‘Nurbs curve’ to construct a nurbs curve.

Then I can select a vertex and press G to use the drag tool to move around our vertices to change the shape of the curve.

To control our vertices, when we select a vertex we can press ‘G’ which will allow us to drag out vertex around on the shape,

I talk more about creating, deleting and controlling vertices above in the section of mesh building and editing.

Skinning is the process of tying the 3D mesh to the joint arrangement you made. This ensures that the joints you constructed will have an effect on your model’s vertices and cause them to move how they are supposed to.

The problem is that, in most cases, a rig will consist of hundreds of separate joints, each of which will need to impact just a small portion of the mesh. For example, a character’s wrist joint should most likely solely control that part of the model. If you moved the wrist joint and it affected the character’s shoulder, then this would look completely off. This is when the process of skinning comes into play. Skinning is necessary not just for generating a model that moves correctly in all of the relevant locations, but also for ensuring that it deforms appropriately.

A fillet or round is a rounded transition between adjacent faces of a 3D solid that connects two objects with a tangent arc in 2D. A fillet is an interior corner, whereas a round is an exterior corner. For example in the image below, you can see the smooth transition between the face of the 3d rectangle mesh and the 3d cylinder mesh.

Fillet (mechanics) - Wikipedia
Picture source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fillet_(mechanics)

Virtual Camera

Lens length, commonly expressed in millimetres (mm), is the basic description of a photographic lens.  It is a computation of an optical distance from the point where light rays concentrate to produce a crisp image of an object to the digital sensor rather than a measurement of the actual length of a lens.

The angle of view, or how much of the scene will be caught, and the magnification, or how large individual parts will appear, are determined by the lens length. The smaller the angle of vision and the greater the magnification, the longer the lens length. The broader the angle of vision and the lower the magnification, the shorter the lens length.

The field of view is how much you can observe of the scene.

We change change both the lens length and field of view in blender by going to our camera options.

Where it says ‘focal length’ we can change this value to change the lens length.

To set it to ‘field of view’ mode so we can use degrees instead we click where it says ‘Millimeters’ and on the dropdown box we choose ‘Field of View’

Depth of field refers to the range of distance that appears very sharp. It changes based on the camera, aperture, and focusing distance, but print size and viewing distance can also affect our sense of depth of field.
With depth of field the transition from acute to unsharp  does not happen suddenly, but rather gradually. In fact, anything directly in front of or behind the focusing distance begins to lose clarity even if the camera’s resolution isn’t picking up on it.

Circle of Confusion Diagram
Picture source: https://www.cambridgeincolour.com/tutorials/depth-of-field.htm

Because there is no critical point of transition, the “circle of confusion” is used to describe how far a point must be blurred in order to be seen as unsharp. This region is said to be outside the depth of field when the circle of confusion becomes visible to our eyes.

Aperture is the access that is provided for the light from the lens to the camera.  The amount of light entering your lens is controlled by the size of your aperture (the width of the hole through which light enters the camera). The easiest approach to manage your depth of field is to use the aperture (f-stop) of your lens.

(Author: Elizabeth , Created/Last Updated: 28th April 2021, Last Accessed: 27/05/2021)

https://photographylife.com/what-is-depth-of-field 

All of these options can be adjusted with in blender by ticking the box for ‘Depth of field’

To create a camera in blender you simply press ‘Shift+A’ and then choose Camera

To create a camera view in blender you simply have to just press Ctrl+Alt+Numpad 0 and then wherever you are currently looking at your object in your viewport scene the camera will then look at the object this way.

Now I press ‘Ctrl+Alt+Numpad 0’

To see all the camera parameters in blender you click on the camera icon

Then you will be presented with all the different camera parameters that you can fiddle around with.

In the camera options we change the camera type by clicking on ‘Perspective’ which will give us a dropdown box.

And we can choose which type of camera we would like to have for example Orthographic

We can also make the camera ‘Target’ type in which it will track an object of choice. We do this by clicking on the ‘Add Object constraint’ icon

Then clicking ‘Add Object constraint’

Then selecting ‘Track To’

Now in this option panel we need to change the ‘Target’ to be our cube instead of the origin so then whenever we move our cube the camera will follow it

Here is a gif demonstrating me moving my cube and my camera tracking it as a target:

Lighting

Picture source: https://3d-ace.com/press-room/articles/how-light-3d-scene-overview-lighting-techniques#:~:text=A%20point%20light%20casts%20rays,Christmas%20tree%20lights%2C%20or%20others. 

Since I did not render my model, I did not really use lighting but I am aware of the different types of lighting:

Ambient

Ambient light is unlike any other sort of light. It generates no shadow on the ground and sends gentle rays in all directions, despite the fact that it has no specific directionality. It’s similar to the dusk that follows a sunset. It is frequently used as a complement to the colour of the main light source in a 3D environment.

Point

Light is emitted by point lamps in all directions. It can be handy in scenarios with a limited source of light (such as a candle) or to light one half of the scene with one sort of light and the other with a different type of light, experimenting with different settings and combinations.

Distant

A distant light is the reverse of a point or omni light, by displaying a very distant light source (like the moon light). In a single direction, directional rays go parallel. In order to mimic sunshine, this form of 3D lighting is commonly used. You may change the location or color of the light and rotate the directional light source to alter the lighting of the scene. 

Sun lamp

The sun lamp, as the name implies, works as a sun in three-dimensional space. It’s incredibly strong, and one of these can generally light up a whole scene. A good setup combination is using one sun lamp as the main lighting source with a white-ish light and then add secondary lights to each portion of the scene as desired.

Spot

The spot lamp produces light in the selected direction through a cone. The amplitude of the cone can range from 0 to 180 degrees. This lamp is best utilised on portions of the scene when you wish to highlight a small area or item without influencing other items around, because it only produces light in the direction you select. It also has a very great volumetric lighting effect.

Area light 

Inside a specified boundaries of a certain size and form, area lights emit light (rectangular or circular). This type of light source is also used both in architecture models and in product lightning visualization. Soft-edged shadows are created by area lights that make the rendering appear more realistic, accurate and natural. Area light, since it goes in both directions and does not emit parallel rays, is the inverse of directional light. 

Volume Light 

Volume light is extremely similar to omni-light, since from a certain point it casts rays in all directions. However, a light volume has a defined form (any primitive geometric) and size. Only surfaces inside the fixed volume illuminate this volumetric light. The effect of smoke, fog, and so on is given by volume Light. 

Ambient Light 

Ambient light is not comparable to any other form of light. In all directions, it casts subtle rays, but it has no certain directionality and produces no shadow on the floor. It often supports a 3D scene by adding color to the primary light source. 

Photometric

Photometric lights make use of photometric (light energy) data to help you define lights more precisely like how they would appear in the actual world. You can make lights with different colour distributions and colour attributes, or you can import photometric data from lighting manufacturers.
These files contain information on the size of the real luminous surface as well as “photometric” measurements of a light’s intensity in different directions.

Ray tracing

Ray tracing is a method for rendering that can create unbelievably realistic lighting effects. Basically, an algorithm will map the direction of light and then model how light interacts in the computer-generated space with the simulated objects it eventually reaches. 

Ray tracing provides, along with much-improved translucence and scattering, for significantly more lifelike shadows and reflections. The algorithm takes into account where the light reaches and measures the contact and interplay as actual light, shadows, and reflections will be perceived by the human eye, for example, in the universe, the way light enters objects often determines what colors you see. 

(Author: Unknown, Created/Last Updated: Unknown, Last Accessed: 26/05/2021) 

https://3d-ace.com/press-room/articles/how-light-3d-scene-overview-lighting-techniques#:~:text=A%20point%20light%20casts%20rays,Christmas%20tree%20lights%2C%20or%20others.

https://learn.foundry.com/modo/902/content/help/pages/shading_lighting/lights/photometric_light.html

Shadow

There a different ways you can add shadows in your scene in blender. One way is where you add a light with a color of white such as using a point lamp, and then for the strength value you want to put a negative value which makes it seem like you have sort of negative light but it appears as a shadow. You can also change the colour of the light in a similiar way by going to the menu and picking a color other than weight but keeping the strength/power value positive

Here I have it as the colour blue.

Attentuation

In the options there are also controls to increase/decrease the light attenuation

../../../../_images/render_blender-render_lighting_lights_attenuation_falloff-options.png
Picture source: https://docs.blender.org/manual/en/2.79/render/blender_render/lighting/lights/attenuation.html
../../../../_images/render_blender-render_lighting_lights_attenuation_linear-quadratic.png
Picture source: https://docs.blender.org/manual/en/2.79/render/blender_render/lighting/lights/attenuation.html

There is also an option where you can select the light falloff type such as linear/quadratic and then you edit the value of how much it attentuates by as well.

Texturing

For my model my texture was mainly just plain simple colours nothing super fascinating

I did this by clicking this button on the right panel

And then when presented with this panel I will click ‘New’ to create a new material

I will call this one ‘Red’

Where it says ‘Base colour’ I will edit this and then make the colour red.

So now I have a red colour material

I repeated these steps and did the same for black, so now I have red and black

Now all I had to do was click on the different faces and edges to select them, then once I had selected them I would click the assign button to give them the colour

Here was my complete sword with colour

Procedural maps give a material more realism. Mathematical formulae are used to produce textures in procedural texturing.  Bitmap pictures, on the other hand, are created by a set matrix of coloured pixels.

To give depth and intricacy to the material, you could layer texture or procedural maps within another procedural map. This is useful because it can be used to create very nice looking textures without the usage of external images, which may be sensitive depending on where they are placed.

(Author: Unknown, Created/Last Updated: Unknown, Last Accessed: 26/05/2021) 

https://knowledge.autodesk.com/support/revit-products/learn-explore/caas/CloudHelp/cloudhelp/2018/ENU/Revit-Customize/files/GUID-B07D217E-3F11-43E6-B37A-5B5F0FAC9D38-htm.html

https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Blender_3D:_Noob_to_Pro/Procedural_Textures

Rendering

To render my sword I had to first insert keyframes. I did this by pressing ‘I’ which is a shortcut for the Insert KeyFrame menu:

I also pressed Numpad 0 on my keyboard to show how it would look in the camera’s view

Now since I would only be rotating my sword up and down which is the on the Y axis. First I would click select my sword, then press R which is the shortcut for rotate and type ’15’ which will add 15 degrees onto the Y rotation degrees of my sword so now it is rotated 15 degrees on the Y axis:

Pressing R and then Y

Typing 15 and pressing enter

Now with my sword still selected I press ‘I’ for the insert keyframe menu and click on ‘Rotation’

I now have my first keyframe which is at 1 where my render will begin at:

I change the end to be ’25’ so I will only be using 25 frames:

Now I move to the last frame, frame 25:

And I select my sword, press R to rotate and type 70 so it will add on 70 degrees onto the Y rotation of my sword so now it will be rotated 85 degrees on the Y axis:

Finally I click I to insert a keyframe and click on ‘Rotation’:

Here is my sword now from frame 1 to frame 25, this is supposed to be a sword swinging animation up and down when the character goes to attack an enemy:

Now we need to render this but first let’s check out the render options:

Here we have all the render properties we change for example instead of the render engine Eevee we can use the render engine Cycles instead:

For the output properties which is what we will focus on more:

I have lots of options I can change, for example by default the frame rate is 24 frames per second which you could see in the gif above but I will bump this up to 30 frames per second as I felt that it is a more accurate render of how my character will attack with my sword in game since it is slightly faster.

You can change the image size/resolution width and height that the render will come out and the aspect ratio

but since I said in my last assignment in the brief that I will be showing it in 1920×1080 top quality to truly show off the sword I will not be fiddling with these options.

I will change the output directory to one that I can locate much easier such as the ‘Videos’ folder:

Then I will change the file format to ‘FFmpeg Video’ since this will not be a static image this will actually be an animation of a sword moving.

As you can see there are various different file types and image formats that can be selected.

Then I will expand the encoding tab and change the Container to ‘MPEG-4’, and the Output Quality to ‘High Quality’ since I would say my PC is pretty decent.

In the metadata tab I can include/not include certain metadata about the render into the file:

Now if I was outputting an image such as a PNG there would be an option to set the compression level which by default is 15%:

I can raise this value if I wanted in order to increase the compression but keep in mind that this will affect the image quality:

Finally I will go to the top click ‘Render’ then ‘Render Animation’:

And it would begin to render my sword and save this render:

Here is a youtube video of the render and I have attached the mp4 file of the sword render at the top of the page (note since it is only 1 second you might want to right click on the youtube video and click ‘Loop’):

Industry Practice/Evaluation/Conclusion

At the very start, I had no clue how I was going to create this sword model as I had never done any sort of modelling or artwork. The houdini tutorials looked so complicated and I had no clue where to start. Then I saw this video on creating a basic sword in blender:

After watching just this one video, I felt confident enough that I would be able to make my own sword in blender. So when I went home I installed blender on my computer since you cannot install them on the school computers as you need admin rights. Then after a few hours of experimenting, playing around with blender and following the tutorial to some extent I figured out ways in which I could create parts of my sword. I practiced different ways of making my sword and found the way that would be most optimal, once I found this way I repeated it about five times so I would be able to quickly make my sword without error in one go for this assignment and which I could take screenshots.

The hardest part I felt for my model was trying to make it sharp which when I explained it seemed easy to do, however at the time when I was trying to figure out how I wasn’t too sure since my sword was quite different form the tutorial’s one. Luckily, I figured out through trial and error that If I selected the sides of the sword and scaled them on the y axis by dragging it in they would be pushed in, giving the blade that sharp slim look.

The part that shocked me the most was from watching the video was that the creator was able to make a very good looking sword from just one cube which I did not expect at all, I assumed he would have to use other shapes and combine them, but I learnt that by just using tools such as extrusion, bevelling, grabbing, scaling and etc you can go from just a tiny cube to a professional sword.

Since this was my first time making anything in a 3D modelling software like blender, my model still wasn’t the best I definitely felt that it could have been improved if I had more knowledge of 3D modelling. This is why if I were to redo this project again with more time I would really dig down into the basics of understanding the different techniques and how I can use them in many ways which will give me so many more tools in my toolkit to use in order to create my perfect desired sword.

I feel like making the switch from Houdini to Blender was extremely beneficial to me since blender feels so much easier compared to Houdini, I feel that Blender’s interface is better as Houdini can be quite cramped and squished together. I got very quickly used to the blender shortcuts which you could see in my tutorial of creating the sword how I always mentioned the shortcuts as I had pretty much learnt most of them. The best part about blender is that it’s free which is also why I chose it as I can only work on my model with Houdini at the college since Houdini is a paid application therefore, I would have had limited time to work on it which would make me rush to finish it and not produce it at top quality, hence choosing blender was the best choice.

Finally, I just wanted to say that I am quite proud of myself for being able to make anything like this as I have zero experience with any sort of modelling or anything to do with artwork in general as I hate it so I always stay away from it, but this unit has pushed me out of my boundaries to do something that I may not be familiar or comfortable with and in the end I managed to make something pretty cool looking. I believe for my brief the company Riot Games will be happy with this sword and take it on.

The link to downloading my model is on at the top of this blog, I added a download for the blender file and a download for the .obj file which can be viewed in any 3D viewer application.

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