Unit 23 Human Computer Interaction


Human computer interaction is the method of humans interacting with computers. The idea was first introduced in the 1980s as the popularity of personal computers had risen. The most common personal computers you would find in people’s home were the Macintosh, IBM PC 5150 and Commodore 64. 

Early Design 

The first design of Human Computer Interaction consisted of paper tapes, punch cards, wires and a keyboard. This is a picture of a punch card: 

This was the earliest form of data storage which was done by either punching holes by hand or a machine doing it. This is an image of a punch card machine:  

Punch card computers which were the first design enabled programmers to develop programs easier as all they had to do was punch holes in the card or get a punch card machine to do it for them. Therefore, the impact of Human Computer Interaction here was simply to make it easier for a programmer to interact with the computer using punch cards. 

Computers were then developed to be able to use an extended command line interface as their operating system. This meant that for the user to be able to interact with the computer, they would have to know the commands and their syntax in order to get the computer to execute the task they wanted. As a result, the extended command line interface had its advantages, such as getting tasks done quickly and being more memory efficient than a GUI interface. However, the disadvantage was that you would have to know the various different commands and their syntax, which only advanced users typically would know. Therefore, the GUI interface had to be developed as an alternative for less experienced users.  

  • The positive impact is that you could control the computer with the command line interface
  • The negative impact is that it was tricky for users who were not experienced with the command line interface to use as they had to remember the many different commands and their syntax


A graphical user interface is an interface composed of icons, tiles and menus. Now all the user must do to interact with the computer is click on the icons and menus to open applications and navigate around the computer. The GUI is very intuitive and user-friendly, and the big advantage is that a user no longer now has to remember lots of commands with all different syntax to interact with the computer, so the impact it had is that It allowed less experienced users to use and interact with a computer.  

  • The positive impact is that is was very easy to use due to its simplicity and it being very intuitive, it also made it so users wouldn’t have to remember the various commands and their syntax to navigate around the computer
  • The negative impact is that it wasn’t that memory efficient, it costs a lot more memory than using a command line interface


A Web User Interface (WUI) is an interface that allows users to interact with the internet by using a web browser which makes the internet much simpler and easier to use. 

As you can see above, this is the WUI of the Microsoft Edge browser. It has a search bar where you can enter what you want to search, and it will send that request to a server and give back to you relevant results, buttons to create new tabs, buttons to change settings, scrollbar to scroll through the page. It’s similar to a GUI in the sense that you interact with the internet by using icons and menus to navigate around, therefore, making it easier and more intuitive for a user instead of them having to connect and output the text of web requests through a CLI. This had a positive impact as it allowed users to interact with the internet with ease. 

  • The positive impact is that it allows users to interact with the internet easily as it has functionality similar to a GUI making it user-friendly to browse the web and change settings like proxies and etc.
  • The negative impact is that just like a GUI it is more memory costing, so the computer would run slower as a result and gets worse when you have multiple tabs open.

Specialised Interfaces 

Specialised Interfaces have enabled us to create interfaces that are more suitable for people who are unable to traditionally interact with a computer, for example, paralysed people like Stephen Hawking can interact with a computer by the computer tracking their eye movement, blind people can use a braille keyboard to touch type and they can use a screen reader to read aloud the text for them. The impact of specialised interfaces is that they have enabled people who are disadvantaged to still be able to interact with the computer despite their circumstances, making the technology suitable for people of all backgrounds. 

  • The positive impact is that it allows people who have disabilities to interact with computers to perform tasks and navigate just like people without them could. It bridges that gap of not being able to interact due to a disability
  • The negative impact is that specialised interfaces are not the same experience as the way a computer is traditionally used. Specialised interfaces may take longer to perform tasks than the normal way of using the computer to do the task, it may also operate incorrectly due to it getting confused.

3D Interfaces 

3D Interfaces are a type of user interface in which there is 3D interaction. In the image above, you can see a large tv screen. It would be annoying if we had to use a remote control and on-screen keyboard to change channels and etc, it would also be very inconvenient if we had a screen that was over 500 inches and we had to use a touch screen. This is where a 3D interface comes into play, we can interact with the screen in 3D by doing things such as hand gestures and signals to perform actions. This has a positive impact as it allows us to control and interact with ease because of the 3D interaction. 

  • The positive impact is that you can control and interact with the TV easily because of the 3D interaction instead of having to drag the cursor along a massive screen
  • The negative impact is that it may be hard to interact with 3D interaction depending on how it’s designed, sensitivity and how much space you have


I believe that in the future, there could be a potential development of HCI that is like thought input. This potential development could read signals from the brain, process them and interpret them, then perform actions based on what it has interpreted. This would be a very beneficial tool and could be used in various ways. For example, a person who is paralyzed cannot physically move their body, but if they had a development of HCI like described above, then they could perform actions on the computer with just the thought from their brain. Hence I believe that this potential future development would have a positive impact as it would be beneficial as fewer people would be restricted from access to technology and it could be used in other beneficial ways too like controlling a robot wirelessly to save human life. 


Reduce specialised knowledge 

HCI has dramatically improved usability as even users with no specialised knowledge can easily navigate around the computer with no troubles. The development of Graphical User Interfaces is a significant factor in modern HCI, nearly everybody even children as young as 5 years old can use technology due to the simplistic design of GUIs. GUIs make it effortless to access tools, browse through folders and perform basic computer tasks as our brain seems to understand the idea behind it very well. For people with disabilities HCI has received more development to suit them as well, for example, blind people can navigate around on Windows 10 with Cortana, and she is capable of screen-reading so she can read aloud for them the text on the screen, this allows people with disabilities to perform the same tasks as people without disabilities. The positive impact HCI has had in reducing specialised knowledge is that it makes technology usable for everybody no matter how old you are, experience you have, have a disability or not, everybody is able to interact with a computer in one form or another. 

  • The positive impact is that it allows anybody to interact with a computer even with little knowledge. A GUI assists in doing this as the simplistic design makes it intuitive to use
  • The negative impact is that using things like Cortana can be longer to use and more difficult if it cannot understand your voice for example

Simplify input/output 

HCI has simplified input/output in different ways, for example with a touchscreen you can easily tap around the screen which simplifies the input, and the keyboard comes up on the screen where you can tap to type, output comes from the screen. The HCI simplifies input/output here as a tablet has all you need, on-screen keyboard, tap screen to navigate around like a mouse and the screen itself for output instead of a monitor. The positive impact HCI has had in simplifying input/output is that you require fewer components in order to interact with a computer as you only need one device which has it all in one making it easier to send input and receive output and is transportable. 

  • The positive impact is that it requires fewer components making it easier to transport around with
  • The negative impact is that you may not be able to do advanced things due to the input/output being simplified

User friendliness 

HCI has had a positive impact of user friendliness, an example we already have is the early design of computers where you would have to know commands and syntax of a command line interface in order to use the computer however only experienced users would know these making less experienced people disadvantaged. However, with the design of GUIs, this problem has disappeared. User friendliness is an important aspect when it comes to the development of websites. Businesses are always looking at how they can improve their website to make it more friendly on the user’s end as it is an important business factor for them, the easier a user can navigate around the website, the more likely the user is to purchase products or whatever the business offers, as it easy for the user to do so with only a few clicks. 

Below is Apple’s website design in May 8 1998: 

Here is their website design today: 

  • The positive impact is that it looks more attractive and makes the website easier to use and navigate around
  • The negative impact is that the website can be vulnerable to more exploits due to the libraries used to make it look nicer and the fancy design uses up more memory on the person’s computer

Specialised Interfaces 

Specialised Interfaces have made a massive difference in HCI for people who are unable to access a computer normally. 

Stephen Hawking is somebody who used a specialised interface. At first, Hawking used a hand-held clicker so he could select his words which were then read aloud by a computer for him. However, he was no longer able to use his hands so he had to resort to using a system which would detect his face movement. This system was invented by intel, and it would allow Hawking to choose characters and words by the movement of his cheek, which was scanned by an infrared sensor. His sentences would then be read aloud by a computer. The positive impact specialised interfaces have had on society as you can see is that even people with a disability are still able to interact with a computer using interfaces that are specialised for them. 

  • The positive impact is that it allows people who have disabilities to interact with computers to perform tasks and navigate just like people without them could. It bridges that gap of not being able to interact due to a disability
  • Negative impact is that depending on the specialised interface it may be hard to obtain, for example Stephen Hawking’s specialised interface can be quite hard to obtain as it was specially made for him by Intel.

Interfaces for hostile environments 

The development of interfaces for hostile environments is one of the positive impacts HCI has had on society. The creation of robots has led to one of their uses of being an interface for a hostile environment. Robots are currently being used in all different hostile environments, as you can see in the picture above, robots are being used in firefighting. These robots can perform various tasks such as analysing and locating fires, performing search and rescue, scanning the area for highly dangerous factors and the task of fire control and suppression.  

  • The positive impact is that they can reduce the risk of human life by taking the place of firefighters to do tasks that would be rather risky
  • The negative impact is that they take the jobs of some firefighters leaving them jobless and sometimes the robot may get confused and do the wrong thing which can potentially leave a human life in more risk

Virtual reality 

Virtual reality is a huge positive impact that HCI has had on society, and it is still developing massively, it is projected to be worth 571 billion dollars by 2025. Virtual reality is mainly used for entertainment purposes currently, as there is a broad amount of games you can play with it due to it being easy to create games with the Unity engine. However, virtual reality is also being used in the work industry for jobs such as flying aircraft, firefighting, military and defence training and many others. Virtual reality means that pilots can be trained through the simulation of VR, firefighters can experience and understand how to act accordingly in dangerous situations and environments through VR, military and defence training can gain experience of what the atmosphere is like, how they should perform their duties, weapon training through VR. This is all possible due to the virtual reality world being a separate and safe world. The positive impact virtual reality has it that we can do things in the VR world that would usually be too risky, dangerous, unsafe to do in the real world. It can also still be used for entertainment purposes such as watching a movie with friends, but it feels more realistic due to you being able to see their avatar in the virtual world. There is a wide range of options for VR. 

  • The positive impact is that Virtual Reality can assist in helping train people for jobs that would be trickier to do real training with and it’s safer in Virtual Reality because the Virtual World doesn’t exist and Virtual Reality is very entertaining for people mostly because of the different experience to what they normally have when they play games.
  • The negative impact is that although Virtual Reality is quite realistic it still isn’t the real thing so when these people go into the real environment they may hesitate and panic because it’s not the same safe environment, and Virtual Reality can make some people feel sick after using it for at least 15 – 20 minutes.


I think that interfaces for hostile developments are a potential future development that would have a positive impact on society to some extent. Interfaces for hostile environments would mean that people who risk their lives in those hostile environments would no longer need to as we would have robots doing the job for us, another benefit is that we wouldn’t have to spend time training the robot for the job as they will be given the same/similar instructions. However, a downside is that these robots will replace many of the jobs for these hostile environments with the ones remaining being something to do with supervising/managing the robots. This means that people would have to look for a job in another sector which, as a result, would saturate that sector. In conclusion, interfaces for hostile developments is a potential future development that would have a positive impact on society to some extent as it reduces the risk of losing lives, no need to spend time training, but it also reduces the number of jobs. 


Productivity Per Individual 

This is what Amazon.com could soon look like - The Verge

Productivity per individual has also had a positive impact on the economy. The website amazon is a good example of this. When you go onto Amazon, it has a very user-friendly layout. The big search bar at the top middle, your basket in the top right and the middle section with suggested products. The big search bar at the top centre makes it intuitive for new users and allows them to quickly search the product they want within a matter of seconds of entering the website. The basket is easily noticed so that you don’t have to waste time trying to figure out where it is, how many products you have in your basket, the whole design of the website as it is made to be understood at first glance. Amazon also has a one-click to purchase option, which makes people buy the item as soon as they click the button. This makes it, so amazon instantly makes revenue before the user correctly decides to make up their mind which boosts their economy. This is how Productivity per individual has had a positive impact on the economy as people tend to spend their money without much thought due to how easy it is to purchase things on the internet. 

  • The positive impact is that it increases the economy which is important for a country especially in our current situation of covid19
  • The negative impact is shops which sell these same products are not making as much money as people prefer to buy it from the comfort of their own home on their device so the shop may have to shut down due to not being able to pay rent.

Increase Automation 

Increase automation has had a negative impact on the economy. According to an analysis firm from Oxford Economics, by 2030 up to 20 million factory jobs will be replaced by robots. This means that 20 million people will lose their job as a robot has replaced them, that person will also struggle to find another job in the service sector as they will most likely have been replaced by robots too. The benefit of factory owners replacing their workers with a robot is that the robot does not need to rest, it can be working all the time and they do not need lunch breaks. The benefits that a factory owner will have by replacing their workers is: not having to pay the robot a salary, they do not have to worry about a robot being sick, going on strike and not doing work properly. However, by replacing these 20 million jobs there will be an increase in income inequality and other factors like homelessness. This is how HCI has had a negative and positive impact on the economy by increasing automation which in turn makes people lose their jobs so there is less money spent on them and more spent on robots automating their job. 

  • The positive impact is that factory owners can replace their workers with robots which will save the factory owner a lot of money as they don’t have to pay employees’ salaries anymore.
  • The negative impact is that all these people will lose their jobs leaving them without a job so they are unable to provide for their family, they may even go homeless.

Reduce human input 

 Reducing human input is another way HCI has had a negative impact on the economy. For some websites, if you have a problem you can have a chat with a robot. For example, on amazon when you have a query about an issue you have, instead of talking to an actual human you deal with a robot which tries to understand your problem and guide you in the route that would help solve your problem. This means that jobs, where a human could give help with users who are having an issue with a purchase or something else, are being replaced by robots as robots can just guide them in the general direction to solve their problem. As a result, human input has been reduced here and there are fewer jobs which impacts the economy negatively.

  • The positive impact is that the boss can replace their employees with these robots that reduce the human input by giving users generic responses then guiding them down the correct route to solve the problem. As a result, the boss will have more money as they don’t have to pay a salary anymore for employees
  • The negative impact is that there are fewer jobs for people and the user who is dealing with these robots may get frustrated because the robot is not giving them what they actually want

Text readers 

Text readers have become an important factor in modern HCI, and they’ve had a positive impact on the economy. Text readers will read the text out on the screen for you by using some form of text to speech voice. This is extremely important for people with certain disabilities like blind people. Blind people are unable to interact with a computer in the same way others do since they cannot read the text present on the screen. This is where text readers come into play, the user indicates somehow that they want the text currently on the screen to be read out and the text is read aloud through some sort of text to speech. This means that blind people can interact with a computer as well instead of being restricted by their loss of vision. This positively impacts the economy as technology is no longer limited to people without disability even people with special needs can access technology using special software such as text readers. This is how text readers a form of HCI have a positive impact on the economy. 

  • The positive impact is that text readers allow people who are blind to still interact with the computer as it reads the text aloud for them which is extremely helpful for them so they will pay for a good one which positively impacts the economy.
  • The negative impact is that some text readers software has to be paid for which some people don’t want to pay for so they may look for a cracked version meaning less money is made which negatively impacts the economy.

Voice input 

Voice input is also another important factor in modern HCI, their impact on the economy has been significant as well. Voice input is widely used from devices like your smartphone, and from computers to aircraft. Cortana is an example of voice input; Cortana uses speech recognition and natural language processing to understand what you said, Cortana will then perform the task you requested her to. This is extremely helpful for people who have a disability. If a person is unable to interact through a mouse and keyboard, they can use Cortana to execute tasks instead. This means that with voice input they are also able to access technology regardless of the disability. Amazon Alexa is another example of voice input. One of the features Alexa has it that you can control the lighting of the lights in your room (if you have set them up properly with the correct lightbulbs) all just with your voice commanding Alexa, this is a quality of life feature that people desire hence why they purchase these products. This is how Voice input has had a significant impact on the economy as it allows people with disabilities to interact with computers despite their disability and it also enables people to perform tasks with ease like setting a reminder, sending a text or playing music which a voice assistant will do for them and that makes people desire these voice assistant products and want to purchase them as they make their life easier which as a result positively impacts the economy. 

  • The positive impact is that voice input means that people who cannot use the mouse and keyboard can command the computer with voice input with the assistance of a voice assistant like Cortana. It also simplifies tasks like setting a timer, setting a reminder for the doctors, changing the lighting. These things make people purchase the products which positively impacts the economy.
  • The negative impact is that the person may not want to use voice input, because the person may think that the voice assistant could be listening to what they say and providing this information for example to a third party company for advertising and etc, so these people will not purchase these products negatively impacting the economy.

Varied working environments 

Microsoft teams is an example of a varied working environment which has made modern HCI have a positive impact on the economy. In the current situation of coronavirus, it is recommended to limit the amount of physical contact where possible. Our college only asks us to come in for two days for our course and we complete an online lesson on Friday with the use of Microsoft Teams. Microsoft Teams allows us to interact with each other through an online video call from the safety of our homes on a device that supports the application. This means that we are reducing the risk of spreading coronavirus as we are limiting physical contact by staying at home and interacting by a video call. Furthermore, this means that we are also reducing the chance of a second wave happening, if a second wave were to happen, we may have to go into lockdown again which would greatly affect the economy of the UK negatively. This is how Microsoft Teams which is an example of a varied working environment positively impacts the economy as we are reducing the chance of a second wave so the economy will not plummet again. 

  • The positive impact is that we can communicate whilst staying in the safety of our homes so we don’t have to risk going into another lockdown which will greatly affect the economy.
  • The negative impact is that it’s not the same face to face experience with your boss or teacher and so you can not get personal one on one help because it’s a group call with many other peers.

Complexity of input 

Complexity of input is an important factor in HCI, it’s what makes technology more/less friendly to the end-user which in turn impacts the economy. As seen in the early designs of computers the input was very complex as you had to be familiar with the commands and syntax of the computer in order to interact with it effectively. Due to this reason computers weren’t as popular with most of the population as this was too advanced for them and so typically only experienced computer users would be using these sorts of interfaces. However, GUIs were introduced and that was a major breakthrough in HCI which allowed even those with little to no knowledge of a computer to be able to easily navigate and interact with a computer on their first time as the design was simplistic and intuitive. As a result of computers becoming easy to use thanks to GUIs this greatly increased the popularity of computers, so many people were purchasing them for home personal use which greatly impacted the economy positively. This is how GUIs which greatly reduced the complexity of input positively impacted the economy because of how they enabled users with little technicality skills to interact with a computer with ease. 

  • The positive impact is that the complexity of input being reduced by GUIs allows anybody to easily interact with a computer meaning many people purchased them as they were interesting, new, fun technology to use which in turn positively impacted the economy.
  • The negative impact is that there has been a reduction in the number of high-paying jobs in IT as the complexity of input has been reduced easily by the invention of GUIs. So the complicated tasks which required advanced IT specialists who knew their way around the command line well, have vanished as the majority of people can replicate the same actions with a few clicks.


In my opinion, the potential future development of increasing automation in HCI is having a negative impact on the economy. According to an analysis firm from Oxford Economics by 2030 up to 20 million factory jobs will be replaced by robots. This means that 20 million people with lose their job as a robot has replaced them, that person will also struggle to find another job in the service sector as they will most likely have been replaced by robots too. As a result, these people will be left homeless, they won’t be able to pay rent, the bills, provide for their family and so on. In conclusion, the potential future development of increasing automation in HCI is having a negative impact on the economy as it is making many people lose their jobs. 



Microsoft Surface Laptop 3 Ultra-Thin 13.5” Touchscreen Laptop (Platinum) -  Intel 10th Gen Quad Core i5, 8GB RAM, 128GB SSD, Windows 10 Home, 2019  Edition: Amazon.co.uk: Computers & Accessories

As there have been developments in HCI, Laptops were created. Laptops are like computers, they have similar computing power, a keyboard and touchpad as input, and a screen for output. However, the big advantage of a laptop is how little space they take up in comparison to a computer, this makes laptops very desirable as they can be transported easily. Many people take their laptops on trains and other forms of transport as it is very easy to transport which they can then use their laptop to check up on emails, meetings and work plans for the day. People don’t only have to use a laptop for work/emails, laptops can also be used for watching films/movies. If your journey to work is long which is the case for many people who travel from outside London into London they usually have enough time to watch 30 minutes of a movie or they can also use their laptop to play a game to keep themselves entertained for the long journey. The impact laptops have had are positive as they are portable, so they are easy to carry around which makes them ideal for work/travelling which has become the norm now so they’ve had a significant impact on culture. 

  • The positive impact of Laptops is how little space they take up in comparison to a computer. This makes them easily transportable which allows people to take them on the train or example to check up on work-related stuff like emails, meetings and work plan for the day. Laptops can also be used to watch movies on long journeys like on a plane or they can be used to play games on.
  • The negative impact of Laptops is that they have made people interact with each other less as they spend most of their time on their Laptop watching films/ playing games

Mobile Phones 

Mobile phones are even more portable than laptops! Mobile phones are small compact devices, they don’t have the same level of computing power as your average laptop or desktop computer, but they have enough to complete the usual tasks they are used for. With mobile phones being small enough to fit into your pocket this makes them very convenient as you don’t even have to carry them like a laptop you can leave them in your pocket, this makes them safer and less likely to break. Mobile phones are used in everyday life, nearly every person (teenager and above) owns a mobile phone and because of that reason you will find a lot of these people spend most of their head down staring at their mobile phone. Mobile phones have created a sort of invisible social barrier where we would rather scroll through social media apps rather than have a conversation with our friends or family. As a result, mobile phones have had a negative impact on culture as we now prioritise going on social media to see the latest news over socially interacting with other humans. 

  • The positive impact of mobile phones is that they are even smaller than laptops so you can easily carry them in your pocket. Mobile phones have enough computing power to do your usual tasks as well such as playing games/ watching movies, reading emails and etc. They also allow you to easily communicate with other people like if you are feeling ill one day for work, you can immediately call them to speak with them about you missing work that day and this all happens in under a minute whereas with emails it can take time to write it up then time for the boss to see it and it’s not even voice to voice.
  • The negative impact of mobile phones is that people are interacting with other people less. Research shows that parents who are addicted to their phones are more likely to have behaviour problems, this research involved 200 families. This shows that parents spending too much time on their phone is having a bad effect on their parenting of the child.

Mobile Computing 

Mobile apps have had a positive impact on culture, for example, a social media app like Instagram allows us to socially network with other people. You can share photos with other people, follow other people to see the content they upload and chat with other people. This can be useful as you may want to stay in contact with old friends, you can keep in communication with old friends by chatting to them through social media, making sure you keep a strong relationship despite not being able to physically see each other due to certain circumstances. You can also keep up to date with how other people are doing as you can see the content; they upload which may reflect their how their life looks or their interests. There are also food delivery services applications such as Deliveroo. Within a matter of minutes, you can order also sorts of different foods to your doorstep through the simple interface of an application. This can be very beneficial especially if you want to order something like fast food and there is not any fast-food restaurant close to where you live. This means that you can save money on petrol and time not having to travel there as you can order it from the comfort of your home. This is how mobile apps have had a positive impact on culture as you can stay in touch with people keeping a close relationship, and you can also use it for other things like ordering food saving you time and money. 

  • The positive impact is that you can keep in contact with long-distance friends or family with the use of social media apps, you can also see how they’re doing in their life from the media they upload this way you can still keep a close relationship with them.
  • The negative impact is that mobile computing can make people less sociable because instead of having face to face interactions with other people they are communicating to each other through a social media app

Mobile entertainment 

Mobile entertainment is having positive and negative impacts on culture, statistics show that the mobile phone users spent 152 minutes daily on their mobile phone and in 2018 it grew up to spending 215 minutes daily. This shows that mobile entertainment is having a significant effect on mobile users as it’s making them want to spend more and more time on their mobile phones because of how entertained they are. Mobile games, for example, are a massive thing, especially in Asian countries where they dominate the market. Mobile games are very entertaining as they are usually simple games that don’t require a deep level of understanding to play the game, and it’s easy to play as the user interface is quite friendly. You can also play mobile games anywhere as many of them are offline not requiring you the internet and they are usually short level games meaning that you can take it in steps completing level by level which you can easily do on short train or bus journeys. Statistics also show that in-app purchase spending in games worldwide grew from $54.7 billion in 2018 to $61.7 billion in 2019. Therefore mobile entertainment has negatively impacted culture as people are spending more time being entertained by their phone than spending time with their friends and family being entertained, but it has also had a positive impact as mobile games have allowed people to be entertained on public transport journeys or something they can play to keep themselves entertained when they are bored. 

  • The positive impact is that people are keeping themselves entertained when they are bored, for example in the COVID lockdown there was a 29% increase in the United Kingdom of time spent playing video games. This is because people had nothing to do so they got very bored but video games kept them entertained as there was nothing else to do
  • The negative impact is that mobile entertainment is starting to control our lives. Most teenagers when spending time with their family are just sitting on their phones on social media instead of having a conversation with the family, learning new things.

Domestic appliances 

Domestic appliances are having a positive impact on culture. Domestic appliances like a washing machine and dishwashers do the job for you, instead of you manually having to wash clothes by hand or manually wash the plates a machine can do for you. This is super helpful as it relieves the stress off you as you don’t have to worry about doing these manual labour tasks which also saves you energy, these domestic appliances often do the job better anyway as they don’t get tired and start slacking off. It also saves you a lot of time, and with that time that’s been saved, you can spend it with the family or entertaining yourself, so it’s a win both ways. This is how domestic appliances have a positive impact as they take of workload for your day meaning you can relax more and they save you a lot of time which you can use to spend with the family or other things like entertainment. 

  • The positive impact that domestic appliances are having on culture is that they reduce workload by automating tasks instead of a human having to do it manually by hand. This means that people can spend this extra time they’ve been given with their family or on other important things they need to do.
  • The negative impact that domestic appliances are having on culture is that people are relying on these domestic appliances to do everything for them, so people are getting lazier. These people never learn the skills of how to do it manually. They haven’t considered what to do if one day the domestic appliances stop working, they won’t know how to do it manually because they never learnt how to as they relied on these domestic appliances their whole life.


I believe that a potential future development such as games and virtual reality is having a positive impact on culture. Video games have been around since the 1970s and have developed rapidly over the last 50 years. Video games have benefits as they train skills as you play them. They improve your coordination, problem-solving skills, enhance memory, enhance multitasking skills and improve your social skills. Video games if played in moderation can be very beneficial for you, studies show that kids who play video games tend to have better problem-solving skills which make them better at subjects that require these like Maths. They improve social skills as many video games are multiplayer nowadays allowing you to interact with other people over the internet potentially creating friendships and connections with these people. Virtual Reality is taking video games to the next level as you become immersed into the virtual world where you see yourself and others as avatars but it appears very realistic making you feel that you actually exist in this virtual world. You could connect with friends and family over the world through virtual reality making it a more realistic experience than a video call. In conclusion video games and virtual reality is having a positive impact on culture as you can connect with other people, train essential skills and feel entertained not worrying about real life problems.  

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